In addition to future exhaustion of fossil energy, the environmental pollution deriving from fossil energy consumption has directly threatened the sustainability of humankind. A large number of scientists and futurologists regard hydrogen as the only alternative. As a matter of fact, hydrogen is a superior type of alternative energy given that it can be generated from water using new or renewable energy sources and is an environmentally friendly, clean energy source. Fuel cells that make the most efficient use of hydrogen can be applied to a variety of fields including electricity, automobile, and mobile communication. KIST started research into hydrogen fuel cells in 1989 by developing a molten carbonate fuel cell for electricity generation (by Seong An HONG and Tae Hun LIM). Currently it runs a demo plant of 100kW at the Boryeong Thermal Power Plant in cooperation with the Korea Electric Power Corporation. In 2000 it operated a fuel cell car using a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (In Hwan OH), the first in the nation. Also, in 2005 it developed a laptop computer fuel cell using a formic acid fuel cell (Jong Hee HAN), whose applications in the IT field are currently being pursued.