The mid-1960s was a critical time for Korea to generate plans for industrial growth and establish science and technology policies that would encourage the nation’s industrial development. In the early stages of this period, KIST and its scientists took an active part in the planning process. Starting with research into long-term energy demand and supply, they prepared development plans for machinery, shipbuilding, automobile and other heavy industries, participated in POSCO (Pohang Steel Company) construction and expansion projects, and helped Incheon Steel engage in more effective management. All these efforts made a huge contribution to the broad framework underpinning Korea’s subsequent successful development of its heavy chemical industry. KIST researchers also provided crucial data to advance Korea’s industries by advising on the establishment of general long-term policies of science and technology and educational plans for producing technological experts. A majority of these ideas were reflected in subsequent government policies related to industry, science, and technology.