Papers Abstract

Chemical characterization of cytotoxic indole acetic acid derivative from mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) against human cervical cancer
The fruit of the white mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) is a multiple fruit with a sweet flavor commonly consumed around the world. Chemical investigation of the fruits led to the isolation of two indole acetic acid derivatives (1 −2) including a new compound, which turned out to be an isolation artifact, 3S-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-indole-3-acetic acid butyl ester (1), along with five known compounds (3 −7). Compounds 2 and 7 were newly identified from mulberry fruit. The new isolation artifact (1) exhibited cytotoxic effect on human cervical cancer Hela cells in a dose-dependent manner. Compound 1 activated caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3, followed by cleavage of PARP, a substrate of caspase-3, in a dose-dependent manner. Simultaneous alterations in protein expression of mitochondrial factors Bax, BID and Bcl-2 were also observed. A comparison between compounds 1 and 2 led to a structure-activity relationship analysis of the cytotoxic effect. These results suggest that compound 1 could be beneficial in human cervical cancer treatment, and provide a theoretical basis for further application of compound 1.