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Factors Affecting Capsular Volume Changes and Association With Outcomes After Bankart Repair and Capsular Shift
Background: Capsular laxity is a main contributing factor in recurrent shoulder instability and is suggested to be correlated with increased capsular volume. Arthroscopic capsular shift combined with Bankart repair can reduce the capsular volume and reinforce the redundant capsule; however, as the capsuloligamentous structure has viscoelastic properties, it is possible for the shifted and tensioned capsule of the glenohumeral joint to slowly stretch out again over time, resulting in an increase in capsular volume. Purpose: To analyze changes in capsular volume of the glenohumeral joint over time after arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift, the factors associated with these changes, and their relevance to outcomes. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Included in this study were 105 patients (mean age, 25.8 ± 8.2 years) who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift for anterior shoulder instability and computed tomography arthrography (CTA) at 3 months and 1 year postoperatively and whose various functional outcomes were evaluated preoperatively and at the last follow-up (>12 months). Among these patients, 27 also had preoperative CTA. These 27 patients were used to make comparisons between preoperative and 3-month postoperative CTA measurements, and all 105 patients were used for all other comparisons. Two raters measured the separate anterior and posterior capsular volume and cross-sectional area at the 5-o’clock position using 3-dimensional (3D) Slicer software. These measurements were subsequently adjusted for each glenoid size. The changes in capsular volume and cross-sectional area at the 5-o’clock position over time, the factors related to higher change in anterior capsular volume, and their correlation with outcomes were evaluated. Results: Three months postoperatively, the total and anterior capsular volume and anterior cross-sectional area signi
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