논문 초록

A review of low-intensity focused ultrasound for neuromodulation
The ability of ultrasound to be focused into a small region of interest through the intact skull within the brain has led researchers to investigate its potential therapeutic uses for functional neurosurgery and tumor ablation. Studies have used high-intensity focused ultrasound to ablate tissue in localised brain regions for movement disorders and chronic pain while sparing the overlying and surrounding tissue. More recently, low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) that induces reversible biological effects has been emerged as an alternative neuromodulation modality due to its bi-modal (i.e. excitation and suppression) capability with exquisite spatial specificity and depth penetration. Many compelling evidences of LIFU-mediated neuromodulatory effects including behavioral responses, electrophysiological recordings and functional imaging data have been found in the last decades. LIFU, therefore, has the enormous potential to improve the clinical outcomes as well as to replace the currently available neuromodulation techniques such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial current stimulation. In this paper, we aim to provide a summary of pioneering studies in the field of ultrasonic neuromodulation including its underlying mechanisms that were published in the last 60 years. In closing, some of potential clinical applications of ultrasonic brain stimulation will be discussed.
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