Differential Proximity of Perisynaptic Astrocytic Best1 at the Excitatory and Inhibitory Tripartite Synapses in APP/PS1 and MAOB-KO Mice Revealed by Lattice Structured Illumination Microscopy
Bestrophin-1 (Best1) is a GABA- and glutamate-permeable, Ca2+-activated Cl- channel, which is mainly expressed in astrocytes and localized at the microdomain or perisynaptic junction of the tripartite synapse. Distribution of Best1 is dramatically changed in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. However, it is still unknown whether Best1 is located at the glutamatergic or GABAergic tripartite synapses. Here, we utilized the Lattice structured illumination microscopy (Lattice SIM) to visualize Best1 expression at the perisynaptic junctions of the tripartite synapses in CA1 of mouse hippocampus. We performed co-labeling with antibodies against 1) Best1 and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 (vGLUT2) or 2) Best1 and vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT) to measure the proximity of Best1-containing perisynapse to glutamatergic or GABAergic presynapse, respectively. In addition, we examined two transgenic mouse lines of 1) APP/PS1 mouse showing high astrocytic MAOB activity and cytosolic GABA and 2) MAOB-KO mouse showing low astrocytic GABA. Lattice SIM images were further processed by Imaris, which allowed 3Drendering and spot identification. We found that astrocytic Best1 was distributed closer to the glutamatergic synapses than GABAergic synapses in the wild-type mice. In APP/PS1 mice, Best1 distribution was significantly changed by moving away from the glutamatergic synapses while moving closer to the GABAergic synapses. On the contrary, in MAOB-KO mice, the Best1 distribution was dramatically changed by moving closer to the glutamatergic synapses and moving far away from the GABAergic synapses. Our findings propose that the proximity of Best1-containing perisynapses to presynapses dynamically changes according to the level of astrocytic cytosolic GABA.