Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique Reinvented: Part II. Experiments
Following a critical review of the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique in Part I, here we experimentally demonstrate how to extract chemical diffusivity with a modified method. We prepare dense bulk samples that ensure diffusion-limitation. We utilize the scaling with t t relax relax + ？ τ (trelax: relaxation time; τ: pulse duration), avoiding problems with composition-dependent overpotentials. The equilibrium Nernst voltage is measured separately using small porous particles. This separation between the diffusion measurement and the titration procedure is critical for performing each measurement in a reliable setting. We report the chemical diffusion coefficients of LixNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 and their activation energy. We extract ionic conductivity and compare it with total conductivity to confirm ion-limitation in chemical diffusion. The measurements suggest that the time scale for diffusion in typical Li-ion battery particles could be much shorter than that of the intercalation/deintercalation processes at the particle surface (Biot number less than 0.1).